Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), tic douloureux (also known as prosopalgia) is a neuropathic disorder of one or both of the trigeminal nerves . Its nickname is "the suicide disease" because of severe associated pain , and the fact that it is not easily controlled or cured. It causes episodes of intense pain in any or all of the following: the ear, eye, lips, nose, scalp, forehead, teeth or jaw on one side and alongside of the face. It is estimated that 1 in 15,000 people suffer from trigeminal neuralgia, although the actual figure may be significantly higher due to frequent misdiagnosis.
TN usually develops after the age of 50, more commonly in females, although there have been cases with patients being as young as three years of age .
TN brings about stabbing, mind-numbing, electric shock-like pain from just a finger's glance of the cheek or spontaneously without any stimulation by the patient. Cold wind, high pitched sounds, loud noise such as concerts or crowds, chewing, talking, can aggravate the condition, and for the worst cases, even smiling, a scarf, the wind or hair on the side of the face is too much to bear.